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The publication is also men- tioned in the bibliography of some of the vases from the Canessa publication in the digital database on the museum webpage, but not all. This neglect has disguised a large number of collecting histories. The Canessa collection was assembled and defined as a collection with the specific purpose of presenting a representative collection.

As for its sources, the catalogue of provides a geographical provenance for 78 of the objects, covering many different locations — surprisingly, many of them in Greece Ta- ble 2. Most of the material seems to derive from clandestine excavations. Only seven objects are acquired from previous collections Table 3. Most vases are 7 See for instance Tsirogiannis 68— These fragments stem from a volute krater that subsequently became the name vase of the Painter of the New York Centauromachy.

The inclusion of the fragments is exceptional, and leads us to our next case. Trade in fragments Pottery fragments constitute an area where the role of dealers has proved cru- cial. Fragments have been a rather unique collecting area, closely associated both with scholars and with study collections. Well-known collections belonged to scholars such as Dietrich von Bothmer and Robert Guy and also to dealers such as Herbert Cahn, one of the leading Swiss dealers of the twentieth century.

Two other protagonists played a crucial role in this trade: Paul Hartwig, men- tioned above, and his close friend and companion in Leipzig, Friedrich Hauser Tsingarida The collecting of pottery fragments developed in the second half of the nine- teenth century in close connection with connoisseurship studies. On two occasions, in and , Professor Karl Dilthey acquired two groups of fragments for the university collection — on both oc- casions from Hartwig.

The correspondence between Hartwig and Dilthey re- veals that Hartwig collected fragments for the professor for academic purposes, to provide him with a representative collection of styles and shapes for use in 8 The fragments have the inventory number I have not been able to locate the publication by Hartwig.

This need was prompted by a change in the focus of research from iconography and antiquarian issues to types, schools and painters, a shift that paved the way for a new role and value for fragments in the collections, be- cause fragments enable the viewer to focus on the details of painting. When only a tiny part of an image is preserved, it is easier to define the details.

This, in the methodology of connoisseurship, makes it possible to distinguish the hands of different painters. Together with Friedrich Hauser, he offered so-called Stilpro- ben or style samples to the university collections in Germany Eschbach 86— Even vases that were already restored were deconstructed: fragments from a neck amphora were found to fit fragments from the Univer- sity Museum in Pennsylvania, and traces of glue are evidence of restoration before the sale and subsequent deliberate destruction in order to sell fragments of the same vase to different collections Eschbach 84— The same study also showed that the fragment collections did not become as popular as expect- ed: large quantities of fragments from the stock of Hartwig and Hauser were acquired by Paul Arndt in Munich.

The role of dealers and the market in shaping collections is a factor 9 Eschbach identifies collections of fragments bought from Hartwig in eleven university col- lections between and Thus in considering when a collection can actually be defined as a collection, it is worth looking at how Pomian defines the collec- tion as phenomenon 5 : —— An institution coextensive with man both in terms of space and time — meaning that there is a dialectic relationship between the collector and the collection.

Thereby collections are understood as meaning-making processes. The geographical and social dimensions thus place collecting firmly in the social and economic setting of human activities. In his text on the visible and the invisible, Pomian becomes more concrete, defining the collection in terms of the following criteria Pomian 9 : A set of natural or artificial objects kept temporarily or permanently out of the economic circuit, afforded special protection in enclosed spaces adapted specifi- cally for that purpose and put on display.

Pomian discusses the paradox of objects in the collection being taken out of the economic circuit while being treated and taken care of as precious or valuable objects. When an object enters into a collection, it loses its function, and it is the subject i. This process does not happen independently of time and space, but is constructed within the geographical and social dimensions that Pomian cites.

This trans- formation is what is called musealisation in museological theory. I suggest that we consider the trade in objects as neither object nor collection, but as an in-between: a liminal space in which the objects are part of a constant negotiation. This process can be discussed through the following matrix, using two di- mensions Fig. The first dimension is the relationship between single objects and objects as collections.

This is relevant when we are talking about the art market: objects are sold individually and have agency as individual objects, and it is through their specific character that they enter a collection and become part of an ensemble or assemblage — the collection. The horizontal line thus defines the musealisation process: the transformation from an object with a special — useful — function to a part of a collection in which it contributes to the deepen- ing of meaning on the subject.

The second dimension is the relationship between archaeology and art. Classical antiquities are considered both as archaeological objects and art ob- jects: they can be both simultaneously. However, the treatment, focus and ap- proach differ depending on how they are categorised. Archaeological objects are defined as part of an archaeological context, and evaluated as part of a larger group of evidence.

Art objects are defined as single objects, valued for their em- bedded aesthetics independent of the context they are placed in. These are two completely different ways of looking at the object, but with a common tension — especially when dealing with classical antiquities that are both archaeological objects and aesthetic works of art.

Once the concept of collection is appropriated by the trade in antiquities, the trade is influenced by and itself influences all these elements. Defining a group of objects as a collection adds value to the objects, as it provides them with a meaning-making process. During the late nineteenth century, research in vase painters transformed objects from archaeological objects to art objects, likewise contributing to a higher valuation: when it comes to power and value, an art collection is the most prestigious.

As used by the trade, this term lends them authority power through the subjectiv- ity of the collector which, actually, is not there. It could be argued that dealers in the nineteenth and early twentieth cen- tury were often also scholars and collectors.

This is, for instance, the case with Hartwig and Hauser, mentioned above. The development of the antiquities market during the nineteenth century gave rise to a large variety of ways to engage with antiquities. Whether these dealer collections should be called collections or not, they testify to a special process of collecting that mirrors geographical, spatial and intellectual developments in the engagement with antiquity.

The dealers react to specific needs on the part of the institutions — but they are also part of the process of developing and shap- ing those needs. In the worst case, objects are even destroyed in order to meet those needs. In: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Canessa C. A Catalogue of Minor Art collection formed by C.

Canessa, on exhibition at their galleries, February — March, New York: [s. Canessa E. Canessa of New York. Canessa F. Il Mattino, 10 Luglio, p. Cirillo A. Il Tesoro di Boscoreale e il suo scopritore. Pompei: Associazione Amici di Pompei. Una famiglia di antiquari. Cassino: Associazione culturale Italia numismatica. Nummus et historia, De Puma R.

In: A. Carpino et al. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America, pp. Selected papers on ancient art and architecture, 4. De Villefosse A. Paris: Ernest Leroux. Key Concepts of Museology. Paris: Armand Colin. Eschbach N. Teile und Verdiene. Zu den Wanderbewegungen attischer Kera- mik um In: M. Bentz, U. Konservieren oder restaurieren — Die Restaurierung griechischer Vasen von der Antike bis heute. Beck, pp. Beihefte zum Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, 3.

Griechische Vasenmalerei: Auswahl hervorragen- der Vasenbilder. Hakelberg, D. For the Sake of Memory. Practicing Archaeology in Early Modern Silesia. In: O. Wolfhechel Jensen ed. Histories of Archaeological Practices. Stockholm: The National Historical Museum, pp. Hartwig P. Berlin: G.

Iasiello I. Linn S. Robert H. In: Penn Museum Blog, 22 April. Marshall J. Berlin: Druck und verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. In: I. Petruciolli ed. Greek Vases in New Contexts. Journal of the History of Collec- tions, 15 2. Pearce S. Leicester: Leicester University Press. Petruciolli G. Published by the British School of Rome. In: Life at the BSR, Pomian K. Collectors and Curiosities: Paris and Venice —, transl.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Prota C. Bollettino del circolo numismatico, 15—16 Gennaio—Di- cembre , 7— Richter G. The Canessa Collection. The Burlington Magazine for Connoi- seurs, 9 39 , — Richter, G.

Collection of Greek and Roman Vases. The Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1 6 , 77— Rouet Ph. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sambon A. Paris: [Macon] or [E. Vases antiques de terre cuite. Collection Canessa. Leiden—Boston: Brill. Tsingarida A.

The Search for the Artist. In: S. Schimidt, M. Steinhart Hrsg. Sammeln und erforschen. Griechische Vasen in neuzeitlichen Sammlungen. Beihefte zum Corpus vasorum antiquorum, 6. Tsirogiannis C. Journal of Art Crime, 63— Voukelatos J. Provenance Lost and Found: Alfred Bourguignon. Koinon, 1, 30— List of ilustrations Fig. Oil on canvas cm height, cm width , Johann Zoffany — Courtesy New York Public Library. Courtesy New York City Museum. Vase antiques de terre cuite.

Col- lection Canessa. Peter Paul Rubens acquired a taste for antiquities during his stay in Italy between and acquired an important collection of sculptures from Sir Dudley Carleton, the British ambassador in The Hague. In Amsterdam, the brothers Gerard and Jan Reijnst recreated the atmosphere of a Venetian palazzo after their purchase of the classical antiquities and paintings of Andrea Vendramin in Parts of these collections came into the pos- session of Gerard van Papenbroek in the 18th century.

Keywords: history of collecting, cultural policies, museum history, archival research The history of classical archaeology in The Netherlands can be divided into two parts. In the long period before this appointment there had been, of course, activities 1 About this Chair of Archaeology and the early history of the National Museum of Antiqui- ties: Halbertsma and Hoijtink His sketches show the famous masterpieces of the period: the Laocoon, the Apollo Belvedere, the Hercules Farnese, and so on.

In Italy, he bought his first archaeological object: a portrait of an old man, with wrinkles and a pained expression on his face. This type of portrait was said to represent the Roman philosopher Seneca Vickers In Rubens enlarged his collection spectacularly by buying the antiquities of Sir Dudley Carleton, the British ambassador to The Hague.

Carleton had been ambassador to Venice, where he acquired these objects for Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset. He took them with him from Venice to his next assignment in The Hague. Rubens heard of the collection, and offered to acquire them, in exchange for 12 of his paintings.

Rubens wrote to Carleton: The paintings have cost me next to nothing, because usually one is more gener- ous with fruit from his own garden, than with things one buys on the market. And in exchange for marbles to decorate only one room, Your Excellency will receive paintings, with which you can decorate a whole house.

The wall had niches in two tiers, and could house around 30 sculptures. Rubens was not overly attached to his collection. His need of money and his growing interest in English politics led to the sale of many antiquities, gemstones and paintings to Georges Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. The transaction earned him the enor- mous sum of 84, Dutch guilders and knighthood granted to him by King Charles I. In Venice, Jan encountered the enormous luxury with which the Venetians surrounded themselves: their palazzi were loaded with fine paint- ings and classical sculptures.

Inspired by these surroundings, Jan conceived the idea of creating the interior of a Venetian palazzo in Amsterdam: a unique op- portunity to enhance the stature of the Reijnst brothers and to create the image of the mercator sapiens, who is not only interested in profit and riches, but also in the fine arts and antiquities.

The opportunity to realise this dream presented itself in , when the Venetian collection of Andrea Vendramin — was sold. After consulting his brother Gerard, Jan was able to buy around paintings and sculptures, which were then transported to the Reijnst man- sion on the Keizersgracht. The impact of this collection was huge. Here Rembrandt encountered the highlights of Italian painting for the first time. Every important visitor to Am- sterdam saw the collection and commented on its beauty.

The pearls in the crown of the Reijnst brothers were two illustrated catalogues of their collection. In , a selection of the finest paint- ings was published in the Caelaturae edited by Clement de Jonghe, paintings by e.

Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto , followed around by the publica- tion by Nicolaes Visscher of the ancient sculptures in the Signorum Veterum Icones. A closer look at the latter catalogue makes it clear that the publication was meant to impress and cannot be considered as a work of scholarly endeav- our.

The engravings show beautiful sculptures with impressive names like e. A comparison with still existing statues makes it clear that the engravings are embellished versions of the sculptures.

After the death of Gerard Reijnst in his brother had died earlier , the whole collection was sold. Twenty-four paintings and twelve sculptures were acquired by the Dutch Republic and offered as part of an important diplomatic gift to the British monarch King Charles II in The other paintings and sculptures ended up in various Dutch and European collections. The classical sculptures, which were expertly restored, showed the perfection of the ancient artists and had to bear impressive names taken from ancient history.

An archaeological collection of quite a different nature was to be found in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in the city of Nijmegen.

It was here that Johannes Smetius — worked as a Calvinist clergyman, with huge scholarly interests, especially in the history of the city of Nijmegen Halbertsma 10— His conviction was that Nijmegen the Roman city of Novioma- gus could be identified with the Oppidum Batavorum, mentioned in Tacitus as the centre of the courageous tribe of the Batavians, who rebelled against Ro- man domination in 69 AD. To substantiate his claims, he started to collect lo- cal antiquities, which were found in and around the city of Nijmegen.

These were not the shining marble remains of ancient art, as shown in Antwerp and Amsterdam, but more mundane artefacts like oil lamps, terracotta statuettes, tableware, small bronzes and glasswork.

He published his collection in his book Oppidum Batavorum seu Noviomagum Amsterdam, His endeavour was continued by his son Johannes Smetius junior — , also a protestant clergyman in Nijmegen and curator of the important collection. He wrote the illustrated catalogue Antiquitates Neomagenses , in which we encounter around 4, Roman artefacts and around 10, coins. His collection attract- ed more than 3, visitors, which makes it more of a modern museum than the Antwerp and Amsterdam collections, which were only open to invited guests.

This is the last known location. At the moment only a few objects in Mannheim and Munich can be traced back to a provenance in the Smetius collection. Four inscriptions remained in Nijmegen as silent witnesses of the great endeavours of the two scholarly clergymen. Many of these antiquities were acquired by Gerard van Papenbroek, a very wealthy 18th century collector Halbertsma 14— His collection grew to a total of ca. His motives for collecting antique sculpture are to my knowledge unique and need some further con- sideration.

Gerard van Papenbroek — was a descendant of a wealthy Flemish family, which fled to the Netherlands in the 16th century, due to the persecution of protestants in the Spanish part of the Netherlands. The family prospered in Amsterdam. Like other members of the Amsterdam elite, he owned two houses: one on the Herengracht in the city centre, and one in the countryside in Velsen, near the North Sea.

He was an avid collector, with a special inter- est in portraits of famous scholars, manuscripts and classical antiquities. Van Papenbroek was not a traveller. He never went on a Grand Tour to Italy, and collected objects mainly by buying them at auctions or acquiring from other antiquarians. The first mention of his collection of antiquities dates from and is to be found in a publication by David van Hoogstraten and Jan Lodewijk Schuur.

In this description of his country house we encounter: Greek and Latin inscriptions, altars, gravestones, funeral urns, sublime sculp- ture, statues and busts, which were found and excavated in various parts of Asia, in Greece, in Rome, and in the surrounding neighbourhoods, also in the Dutch Republic, and which were brought hither.

That only the word and the name of Jehova the Lord remain to all eternity. He tried very hard to publicize his antiquities, but due to various reasons this project never materialised. When his health began to fail, he looked for a safe haven for his precious belongings. Due to his excellent contacts with some curators of Leiden University, he de- cided to bequeath his entire collection to this institute.

Opposition from some influential inhabitants of Amsterdam led to a division of the portrait gallery: part of it was donated to the Athenaeum Illustre, the predecessor of the Univer- sity of Amsterdam. Van Papenbroek died on 12 October His collections arrived in Leiden in the early months of The paintings and manuscripts were placed in the Academy Building and the Library, but there was no room available for the collection of antiquities.

It was decided to alter a building project which was already underway: the construction of a new orangery in the Botanical Garden of the University.

The central room of this building was embellished with classical pilasters, a stuccoed ceiling and pink marbled niches. The white marble contrasted very pleasantly with the pink background and the overall effect was a tribute to the generosity of Gerard van Papenbroek. Keynote speaker was Franciscus Oudendorp, professor of ancient history and rhetoric, who was preparing a catalogue of the antiquities. In his speech we encounter the feelings of uneasiness, which were provoked by the pagan world of antiquity: the statues of gods and goddesses were naked, in- scriptions praised emperors as if they were gods and the representations of the 4 Leiden University wanted to honour Van Papenbroek with a portrait, but he answered that an inscription with his name was enough.

The following quotation gives an idea of the general attitude of Oudendorp towards antiquity: If you would like to admire, or to ridicule, the over-ambitious titles of the Em- perors, on equal footing with the gods, with which citizens, allies and provin- cials have idolized those lords and rulers of the world; titles heaved upon each other to a boring limit, the stones will give you as much arguments as books and coins.

Halbertsma in Eck Of course, from an academic point of view the collection was very interest- ing, because it offered, for example, representations of gods, which were for- merly unknown to classical scholars, like the indigenous goddess Nehalennia or the Batavian god Magusanus.

Better objects of study were the early Christian monuments and the inscriptions from the catacombs in Rome. And so, the first large collection of antiquities entered the academy of Lei- den. Apart from Oudendorp, the objects did not receive much attention. They belonged to the curiosities in the Botanical Garden, together with the stuffed alligators, precious stones and tortoise shells.

Moreover, the damp conditions in the orangery caused the deterioration of many statues. Joints had been repaired with iron clamps, which began to rust. Parts of statues broke off, or were taken away by visitors. The 19th Century: the chair of archaeology in Leiden Caspar Reuvens: inspiration from Paris The presence of the Papenbroek bequest in Leiden was the main reason to make a choice for this city when, in , a chair of archaeology was created by Royal Decree Halbertsma 24— Reuvens, who, at the age of 25, had already proven to be a genius Fig.

It was here that his fascination for the material culture of Greece and Rome took shape. Filled with these ideas, he returned to the Netherlands, where he became Professor of Clas- sics at the small university of Harderwijk. This university was closed in In order to gain more knowledge about collections and to meet colleagues abroad, he made travels to England and the German States, and worked intensely to create a network of like-minded scholars and influential high ranking civil servants and politicians.

During his travel to London, Oxford and Cambridge he desired to acquire plaster casts of the Parthenon Marbles, recently acquired by the British Museum. The University responded negatively to his request for funds, but the Ministry of the Interior did see the importance of enlarging the collections in Leiden, and financed the transactions.

Now Reu- vens experienced with which connections he could realise his ambitions, with far reaching results. Six rooms were made available for him, in a building next to the Museum of Natural History. His second con- cern was to take an inventory of all the antiquities, which were scattered among various institutions in the Netherlands. For this reason he made a clear descrip- tion of what kind of objects should be placed in a Museum of Antiquities.

Being a classicist, the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome were his point of depar- ture. Consequently, the material remains of all the cultures which were known by or influenced by Greece or Rome had to be placed in the archaeological mu- seum: Egypt, Carthage, Persia, the Germanic and Celtic worlds Halbertsma 31— This system excluded the Americas and the Far East the Americas were included later in the 19th century.

Not all the institutions were willing to cede their antiquities to Leiden. The collections of B. Rottiers In the meantime, word had spread that a new museum was created in the Neth- erlands. Collectors with a special interest in archaeology found their way to Leiden with the result that important collections were offered to the museum.

One of these collectors was the Flemish Colonel Bernard E. Rottiers — , Fig. In , he was granted an honourable discharge with a huge bonus, and set off on his homeward journey from Tiflis via Constantinople, Athens and Rome to Ant- werp. With the fi- nancial resources of Rottiers and the political influence of Fauvel, excavations were started around Athens, aided by other members of the Athenian corps diplomatique. The excavating teams were successful.

In the cemeteries along the ancient roads of Athens they discovered grave markers like marble lekythoi and beautiful stelae dating from the 4th century BC. The finds were divided between the excavators, and the impression is that Rottiers, as the main financer, got the best of the results. Rottiers arrived with his treasures in Antwerp in and came in 5 See about Rottiers: Bastet ; Halbertsma 49— With the financial aid from the Ministry of the Interior, the antiquities were bought and the museum in Leiden came into possession of original clas- sical sculptures dating from the 4th century BC.

The enterprising Colonel did not stop with this sale. A collection of Greek ceramics, acquired by his son in , was sold to the museum Halbertsma 54—55 and an idea developed in the mind of the Colonel. During a number of talks with the Ministry of the Interior he sketched a project, with the aim to start excavations in Greece and collecting antiquities in the Mediterranean.

For this project, he needed the help of the Dutch Navy, which had a fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, based at Cap Mahon. From the fact that Professor Reuvens was not invited to these talks, it is clear that archaeology and archaeological collecting had become part of the cultural policy of the Netherlands and was planned at the Ministries in The Hague, and not in the halls of the university in Leiden.

Colonel Rottiers received permission and funding for an archaeological ex- pedition to the Mediterranean which would last two years — Only af- ter this permission had been granted, Reuvens was informed about the decision. The professor was not amused, to say the least. He had come to know Rottiers as an adventurous man, and a skilled organiser, but not as a scholarly investiga- tor. In the meantime, Reuvens did what he could to train the Colonel in the basics of archaeology: he compiled a reading list and wrote a long memorandum about the most important aspects of the archaeo- logical mission in Greece.

The mission was not successful. Witdoeck to draw in detail the medieval architecture of the Knights Templar. After , Rottiers tried a few times to ingratiate himself with Reuvens, but to no avail, especially after Reuvens had discovered that Rottiers had cheated him about the provenance of an important object from the collection which Revuens had acquired from Rottiers in It was through these channels that Reuvens came into contact, in , with a Dutch expatri- ate, who had lived for more than twenty years in Tunisia.

Jean-Emile Humbert Fig. In this function he modernised the citadel of Tunis and built various fortifications in the interior of the country. In his free time he learned Arabic, studied the his- tory of the country and started collecting ancient coins. He became especially interested in the history of Carthage and the interpretation of its ancient ruins, which were lying in the neighbourhood of La Goulette.

He made detailed plans of the Carthaginian peninsula and even started excavations, during which he found the first remains of the Punic city, which was destroyed by the Romans in BC. When he returned to the Netherlands in , he took his drawings and collections of coins and Punic material with him.

Through the Ministry he came into contact with Reuvens, whom he met in Leiden, with important con- sequences to the history of archaeology. But these men were the pioneers behind many of the great European collections of today. The sciences and arts […] were at that time only just starting on the road to professionalism. He considered them the best plans of Carthage ever made. The location of the Punic settlement still remained a mys- tery, as no Punic remains had been unearthed.

The finds of Humbert, four ste- lae and some fragments, most of them with inscriptions, provided a starting point for solving the topographical mysteries of the peninsula and for shed- ding light on the Punic language. On one of the detailed maps of Carthage, Humbert had indicated the findspot of the Punic stelae. The maps and stelae were bought for the archaeological cabinet, the coins were acquired by the Royal Coin Cabinet in The Hague and Reuvens suggested to Humbert an archaeological expedition to Tunisia, in or- der to acquire more Punic and Roman material and to study the topography of Carthage, in view of the forthcoming publication.

Because of the national prestige of such an enterprise, the Ministry decided in favour of the expedition. Humbert was elevated to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, received a military order for his earlier achievements in Tunisia, and left the Netherlands early in the year He remained in Tunisia till and sailed home with a shipload of Punic and Roman antiquities, and notebooks full of topographical sketches and drawings of the excavations he had conducted in Carthage and in other places. They were bought from a high ranking official at the Tuni- sian court, who provided detailed information about the spot where the statues had been found more than twenty years earlier.

Reuvens and the Ministry were very pleased with the outcome of this expedition, but the topographical mate- rial was still not enough for the final publication. Moreover, Reuvens had start- ed to aim higher than Carthage alone; he wanted to incorporate the topogra- phy of Carthage in a broader context of the history of the whole North African coast.

For the sake of this endeavour, a second exhibition to North-Africa was organised, which would last four years — The ste- lae were grave markers for sacrificed children. Reuvens and his colleague Hendrik Hamaker published the stelae in Hamaker ; Reuvens The safety of Humbert outside of Tunis could not be guaranteed.

Humbert asked permission to remain in Italy, at least for the summer of This permission was granted, provided that Humbert would be active in buying antiquities for the museum in Leiden. This provision led to unforeseen results.

In , Humbert bought an important collection of Etrus- can decorated urns from Volterra and a big collection of Etruscan antiquities from Cortona Collection Corazzi. Following the acquisition of the Corazzi collection, Humbert bought an important collection of Egyptian antiquities, which had belonged to Dr Cimba, a physician of the well-known collector of Egyptian antiquities, Henry Salt see Manley, Ree In , busy with packing and shipping the Etruscan and Egyptian antiquities to Lei- den, Humbert was informed that a very large collection of Egyptian antiquities was on its way to Leghorn.

With this acquisition Leiden was on equal footing with the most important collections of Aegyptiaca in Europe: Paris, Lon- don and Turin. A new task lay ahead of Reuvens: the publication of the Egyptian monuments of the Leiden Museum. These excavations and their publication weighed heavily on his shoulders.

In these circumstances it became very hard to work on three publications at the same time, apart from his duties as museum director, excavation supervisor and university professor.

The important acquisitions of Punic, Etruscan and Egyptian antiquities left the classical department behind, both in numbers and 10 More than vases from the collection of Raffaele Gargiulo: see about this collection Milanese — The end of these prosperous pioneer years is marked by the political turmoil following the Belgian insurrection in and the subsequent partition of the Kingdom of the Netherlands into two separate states.

Cultural expedi- tions to the Mediterranean were cancelled due to the dire financial situation in the Netherlands.

Humbert went back to Italy, where he died in Four years earlier, Reuvens had met an untimely death, following a stroke. This event thwarted all his ambitious projects. Colonel Rottiers survived both Reuvens and Humbert, and died in in Brussels, at the age of 86 years.

He was buried with military honours. With the death of these three protagonists there came an end to the eventful pioneer period of the Leiden Museum. Epilogue: towards a comprehensive study of historical collections So far I have sketched a story of collecting classical antiquities in the Nether- lands, from the 17th century till the birth of the official study of archaeology in the first half of the 19th century.

This story has been told from a Dutch point of view. But we must not forget that archaeology and the trade in antiquities have been practised on an international scale. In order to comprehend the prov- enance and the history of objects, it is of paramount importance to look at every aspect of the object or collection in question.

Let us take, for example, an early Christian sarcophagus, which belonged to Peter-Paul Rubens in the 17th cen- tury. Carleton had bought these antiquities in Venice, from the collection of Cardinal Giovanni Grimani, Patriarch of Aquileia.

On the plinth of the sarcophagus, there is an inscription dedicating the object to the eternal memory of Pope Marcellus, Bishop of Rome in the years — The inscription is not from the 4th century AD, but leads us to Rome, where a church in honour of Marcellus was built in the 8th century AD. The mortal remains of Saint Marcellus were transported to this church on the Via del Corso from the catacombs of Santa Priscilla.

In order to add some 12 Now in Leiden, inv. Pb Maybe on this occasion, Grimani removed the damaged remains of the sarcophagus and placed them among his own collection of antiquities, which were bequeathed in to his nephew Giovanni Grimani in Venice. The sar- cophagus is heavily restored and shows traces of black soot, probably the traces of the fire in A second example may be taken from the expedition of Rottiers during the years — In August , Rottiers started excavations on the island of Melos.

He bought a piece of land next to the findspot of the Venus of Milo, and according to a common practice he was allowed to dig the terrain. He un- earthed a mosaic floor, of which he lifted the main panels. According to his report, he also found an altar decorated with boukrania, which he took aboard his ship. He had just ended his activities on Melos when he was informed about new laws concerning the acquisition of ancient objects.

In his own words: My activities were disrupted by the archon of Milo. This magistrate informed me of a decree by the Greek government, which forbade every foreigner, from every country, to carry out excavations and appropriate pieces of antique monuments.

All these objects belong to the state. Once the Greeks have finished a heavier task, they want to place them in a Hellenic Museum. With pride they will show the foreigners what is left of their ancestors, of those men who gave Europe its art and civilization.

I obeyed the orders of the archon, although I myself had bought the terrain of the excavations. It meant taking leave of grand projects. I sacrificed my sincere hopes to the young legislation of a suffering country and I do not believe that I should feel sorry for that. The archon of the island wrote to Rottiers: To our great amazement we have seen that you have lifted from the earth a mar- ble, which does not belong to you at all.

And now you confiscate a marble discovered by another person on a different field […]. If you proceed to take it by force, we admonish you that it is worth collonati, which will be fined to you on behalf of our government.

This behaviour was reported to the authori- ties on the Greek mainland. Articles appeared in Greek journals about his con- duct, and when Rottiers arrived in Athens to measure architectural remains and to buy antiquities, his reputation had preceded him: he was caught by the police, and was forced to return all the ancient items he had collected. Then, the enraged good Dutchman, not only did he not pay the expenses he had made at the hotel, but he also refused to pay the people who had served him, and while leaving the place, he threatened that he would guide the Turks how to conquer Athens.

Other archival sources may shed a totally different light on the events in Greece. The third and last example can be taken from the travels of Jean Emile Humbert. In Tunisia, he was not the only antiquarian trying to buy antiquities. As sketched above, Humbert was interested in acquiring the imperial statues, which had been found around in Utica.

They were in the possession of a high ranking minister of the Bey. When Humbert arrived in Tunis in , he learned that one of the finest statues, probably representing Plotina, the wife of emperor Trajan, had been bought by the Danish consul Andreas Christian Gierlew now in Copenhagen, see Lund Falbe had started excavations in Carthage, which were disrupted by Humbert 13 Letter by Mr.

Emanuel to Rottiers, August , cited in: E. Protopsaltes ed. The document is to be published in: Charalampos Maliopoulos, Chasing the imaginary — The classical past of ancient Greece: colonial and national fantasies Leiden University MA Thesis, forthcoming. The result was that Falbe saw his excava- tion totally ruined, a fact that he never forgave Humbert.

None of these inter- national conflicts ever reached the ears of Reuvens or the Ministry. At various moments, he was ahead or behind one of these players in acquiring objects. He stood also in close contact with Eduard Gerhard, the founding director of the Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica and visited with him in an exhibition of Greek vases excavated on the premises of Lucien Bonaparte near Viterbo.

The availability of searchable archival sources, which are kept in muse- ums and State Archives, is essential for understanding this period of dynamic collecting, international competition and governmental involvement.

Moreo- ver, only the archives can give answers to the very important questions concern- ing the legality, the motives and the practicalities of 19th century collectionism. It would allow us to recreate the original archaeological environment existing before the activities of the antiquarian adventurers of the 19th century.

The Making of Rubens. Bastet F. De drie collecties Rottiers in Leiden. Leiden: Rijksmuseum van Oud- heden. Bundgaard Rasmussen B. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmard. Eck C. Berlin—Boston: Walter de Gruyter.

Halbertsma R. Le solitaire des ruines — de archeologische reizen van Jean Emi- le Humbert in dienst van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. Leiden: Rijksuniversiteit.

London—New York: Routledge. In: C. Berlin— Boston: Walter de Gruyter. Hamaker H. Diatribe philologico-critica monumentorum aliquot Punico- rum nuper in Africa repertorum interpretationem exhibens.

Lugduni Batavorum: S. Haskell F. Hoijtink M. Rubens and Italy. Logan A. Amsterdam: North-Hollan. Lund J. In: V. Ciccotti ed. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi Camillo Borgia. Velletri: Comune di Vel- letri, 75— Manley, D.

London: Libri. Milanese A. Firenze: Edifir edizioni Firenze. Muller J. Rubens: The Artist as Collector. Princeton: Princeton University Press. De verzameling van Rubens in historisch perspectief. In: K. Bel- kin, F. Healy eds. Een huis vol kunst — Rubens als verzamelaar. Antwerpen: Ru- benshuis. Regteren Altena I. De portretgalerij van de Universiteit van Amsterdam en haar stichter Gerard van Papenbroeck, — Amsterdam: Swets en Zeitlinger.

Reuvens C. Vickers M. List of illustrations Fig. Louis Moritz, Portrait of Professor C. Reuvens, ca. Portrait of B. Rottiers, lithography after a painting by Th. Lawrence, from Les Monumens de Rhodes Portrait of J. Humbert, ca. Boggi, Special Collections, Leiden University. From Antiquarianism to Scholarship… Fig. Their antique collections were among the largest in the Duchy, distinguished by a variety of artefacts.

They helped establish the identity of the family and create images of its power. More purposeful and more erudite antique collections have emerged. The content of the collections also changed — in addition to local ob- jects, the collection of ancient antique artefacts began to be collected more con- sistently, focusing more on objects of one category Mikocki ; Betlej — In the 18th century, however, earlier models of antique accumulation remained important. Traditionally, the origins and power of the family were represented at the noble courts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania when collect- ing antiques, mainly family heirlooms and other local artefacts.

These nobles were the princes of the Holy Ro- man Empire, high-ranking state officials, owners of large estates and belonged to the most significant art collectors of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Many of the descriptions of the collections are fragmentary, some consider special groups of objects, such as numismatic ones. The article is also based on the diaries of nobles and the correspondence of the officials of the court. In their diaries, they 3 The collections were first looted in the second half of the 18th century, when Nesvizh was devastated by the Russian army.

There are almost no specialised descriptions for the antiques left. The status of antiques as collectibles was also supported by examples from other lands that the princes encountered while traveling. At that time, the prince was already holding the important position of the Lithuanian field hetman.

Wobbe provided more information about the objects, wrote down their inscriptions, sometimes gave more precise names to materials or iconography, and explained the origin and purpose of the objects in more detail. However, at the court of Hieronim Florian, the antiques were more associated with the diversity of the world, its curiosities. It lists natural objects, artefacts, and various oddities, which Hieronim Florian thought were worth enjoying in his residence.

The list of 34 items also mentions several relics of ancient civi- lizations. Various types of antiques are also mentioned in the descriptions of Marcin Wobbe wrote the inscriptions and dedication for the book Icones familiae ducalis Radivillianae Although much of the ancestral antiques were inherited, one of them was acquired relatively recently. Paintings and other works depicted the military marches of various branches: Ber- natowicz — The document was examined by Krzysztof Filipow: Filipow — Among them — a blade found in Volhynia, in an ancient tomb.

The treasure of Nesvizh also contained items related to the history of the Duchy and its contacts with neighbouring countries, the history of wars. It is likely that the same shield is now housed in the National Museum in Krakow Fig.

Probably it was made in Augsburg or Milan in the late 16th century. Many foreign weapons and war trophies have been preserved. Matuszewicz ; Kowalczyk The princes also appreciated the objects relating to the rulers of Lithuania, Po- land, and other European countries.

The identification of the nobility with the estate of knightly warriors encouraged the presentation and preservation of armaments. However, unlike local relics, universal antiques also had other meanings — they represented the diversity of the world and the origins of European culture. The origins of these items are usually undefined in invento- ries.

They probably inherited these items from their parents. Next to one of them, the sacrificial knife, the legend of the origin of this metal is described: an alloy of gold, silver, and other metals was formed by accident when Herostratus set fire to the temple of Diana Artemis in Ephesus. Some pagan sacrificial objects are associated with the territories of the provinces of the Roman Empire.

For more on Corinthian bronze, see: Jacobson, Weitzman — The source probably contains a distorted name for the Carnuntum area.

Systematic archaeological excavations in this area began in the 19th century. Sometimes sacrificial supplies are associated with the Old Testament events and places. One of them is the sword mentioned in the Gospel, with which St. They were probably flat, triangular fossils found in Europe, mentioned by Pliny the Elder. In the Middle Ages and later, they were considered the tongues of snakes called Glossopetrae turned into stone on the Island of Malta by St. There were also other early Christian relics.

Sixteen statues are listed, including a copy of the famous Farnese Bull, Capitoline Wolf, as well as Saturn, Venus, and other ancient gods. In the previous collections, the depictions of the themes and motifs of these objects were not equally detailed. In , the inventory of the Nesvizh treasure mentions the ancient Greek unicorn cross with figures and an image of the Resurrection of Christ.

It was gifted to John Sobieski by the Patriarch of Alexandria. The numismatic collections of were relatively large. Hieronim Florian also possessed numismatic items. In a list compiled after his death, 22 of the numismatic objects were named Roman.

Several items in this collection are described in detail. Among them is a Greek coin or medal with the image of the Macedonian soldier Lysimachus. Other 26 larger and smaller medals or coins of the Roman emperors were also listed separately. The origin of the most of these objects is unknown. But authentic artefacts are very likely to be found in this group. The description shows that the object was valued by the prince as a testimony to the historical reality, the small body of Alexander the Great.

The inclusion of the feather in the set of the most valuable items was to be a sign of a fateful coincidence in the recent history of the family and, at the same time, its participation in the order of the history of the world under the care of Providence.

The object inspired imag- es of antiquity and helped to substantiate the connection of the family with the universal origins of Europe, the well-known and important events of its past. Commenting on antiques, he revealed the connections between ancient civilizations and the his- tory of the family. There were many different types of objects in the collection. Universal antiques were not consistently systematised. However, in the Wettin times, an attempt was made to single out objects of universal history or to create new groups of them.

It reflects a search for a more specific place for universal objects, one that is more in line with their nature. Oriental antiques and ancient Egyptian artefacts Another group of antiques was related to distant, non-European territories.

In addition, Hieronim Florian had one exceptional sword. Based on the claims of unnamed Syrian princes, the magnate considered the weapon to be one of the five swords once belonging to the Prophet Muhammad and men- tioned in the Quran prophecy.

Three out of five swords have already been regained by Muslims, but two have not. In this story, the nobleman emphasized the importance of the sword for the destiny of the entire Christian world. The status of the object as a material testimony to history is also expressed. Although many family valuables were looted at the time, the mummy was left behind. It was stored in the library, along with other rarities, natu- ral objects and works of art.

The acquisition of the mummy was probably also motivated by the uniqueness of this object: 50 A solid amount was paid, significantly exceeding the annual salaries of many court officials and professionals of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at that time: Kitowicz In the first half of the 18th century, King Augustus II had ancient Egyptian artefacts, but there is no data yet that any noble family of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was in possession of such items.

Their collections contained a wide variety of antiques, corresponding to the paradigm of a comprehensive, universal collec- tion. Relatively much importance was attached to the traditional artefacts of aristocratic collections — weapons and emblems of power. A large part of the antiques consisted of family relics. The collection of ancient numis- matic objects was also relatively large. The authenticity of the artefacts was some- times noted.

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